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Azad Hind Government’s 75th anniversary

Why in the discussion?
75th anniversary of the formation of the Azad Hind Government in the red fort of New Delhi on October 21, 2018 was celebrated.
key points
  • 75 years ago in 1943, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose had announced the establishment of a temporary government in Singapore as Azad Hind (also known as Arji Hukumat-e-Azad Hind).
  • It was supported by the polar powers of Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany, Italian Social Republic and its allies.
  • This respected freedom fighter started a struggle to liberate India from British rule under the flag of the temporary government in exile during the latter part of World War II.
Background
  • Subhash Chandra Bose had a firm belief that armed struggle is the only way to liberate India. In the 1920s and 1930s, he was the leader of the fundamentalist party of the Indian National Congress, in 1938-1939 the Congress was on the path to becoming president, but after the differences with Mahatma Gandhi and Congress leadership, he was removed.
  • Under their temporary government, Indians living abroad were united. The Indian National Army attracted overseas Indians, former prisoners and thousands of volunteer citizens living in Malaya (currently Malaysia) and Burma (now Myanmar).
  • Under the temporary government, Bose was the head of state, Prime Minister and Minister of War and Foreign Affairs. Capt Laxmi Sehgal presided over the women’s organization, while S.A. Aiyar led the campaign and spread wing. Revolutionary leader Ras Bihari Bose was appointed the supreme adviser.
  • A temporary government was formed in the Japanese occupied Andaman and Nicobar islands. These islands were reclaimed by the British in 1945.
  • Bose’s death was seen as the end of the Azad Hind movement. World War II ended in 1945 with the defeat of polar powers.
  • Certainly the role of the independent Hind Fauj or Indian National Army (INA) was important in promoting India’s struggle for independence.
  • Context
    Telecom Department is doing better for the development of digital services in the country to liberalize additional spectrum for Wi-Fi operations. It is moving forward in conjunction with India-Global standards in terms of public internet access jointly with the plan to start up to ten million interoperable Wi-Fi hotspots by 2019.
    key points
    • There is a Wi-Fi hotspot on average for every 150 people globally.
    • According to the size of the population of India, there should be about eight million hotspots here. However, the total number of hotspots in India is only 31,500.
    • Despite the fact that India has the world’s largest cellular network. Telecom companies have so far been away from making public Wi-Fi access models which are primarily scared of the loss of their main business.
    • But the data consumption is increasing rapidly, soon there will be a time when cellular networks alone will not be able to meet the demand.
    • It has been estimated that monthly usage of smartphones per smartphone in India will increase from 7 GB of 2017 to 13.7 GB by 2023.
    • To support this growth, telecom companies will need to lay the network network in which traditional cellular infrastructure can be selected by optical fiber cables and public Wi-Fi access points.
    • Wi-Fi services usually run on unwanted spectrum bands, which can be easily accessed by operators without buying through expensive auction.
    • At the global level, the number of hotspots has increased by 568%, but in India, this increase is only 12%.
    • With the decision to free up the 605 MHz spectrum in the 5 GHz frequency band, there has been an increase in the bandwidth availability of ten times more bandwidth than the existing capacity for Wi-Fi services.
    • In order to make the proposed one million Wi-Fi hotspot interoperable, users will be allowed to come easily without having to sign in with the Wi-Fi network.
    • At present, when a user wants to use Wi-Fi network, many obstacles are present. Firstly, the Wi-Fi coverage from the mobile network does not carry the handover at smooth speed. Every time the user goes from cellular network to the Wi-Fi network, there is a disruption in Internet access.
    • Second, if the Wi-Fi network is managed by an operator that is different from the user’s mobile operator, then the user has to sign in to access the service. Under an interoperable network, these issues are resolved.
    • Policy makers should now focus on furthering such efforts to enable Wi-Fi infrastructure to start.
    • Telecommunication Regulatory Authority of India should be applied to small traders, grocery stores and other vendors without delay in allowing public data offices to be installed. It can also be done for data such as PCOS did for long distance telephone services.
    • Context
      Recently, scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have developed a micro robot that can be used to monitor the oil or gas pipeline or to diagnose the disease in the human body. Significantly, the size of this robot is about 10 micrometres.
      Manufacturing
      • Scientists have also discovered the way in which such robots can be produced extensively.
      • These miniature robots have been named ‘syncells’ (microscopic form of Synthetic Cells).
      • Scientists have used the two-dimensional format of carbon and graphene in the construction of the outer structure of this minimal robot.
      • According to a professor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this robot behaves like a living biological cell.
      • The formation of such small robots in large quantities is rooted in controlling the process of natural fracturing of thin, brittle material like atom.
      • Scientists direct ‘fracture lines’ directly through ‘automatic punching’ so that they can produce at least pockets of estimated size and shape.
      • Inside these pockets, robots are attached to such electronic circuits and materials that can collect and store statistics.
      Potential application and importance
      • These robots are capable of monitoring the condition of oil and gas pipelines and diagnosing diseases in the human body while circulating with blood.
      • The production process of these robots can also be used in many other areas.
      • It is capable of storing statistics without any external power.

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